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Spatial variations of Pb, As, and Cu in surface snow along the transect from the Zhongshan Station to Dome A, East Antarctica
Received:January 18, 2018  Revised:April 23, 2018  Click here to download the full text
Citation of this paper:XingXing Jiang,ShuGui Hou,YuanSheng Li,HongXi Pang,Rong Hua,Mayewski Paul,Sneed Sharon,ChunLei An,Handley Michael,Ke Liu,WangBin Zhang,2018.Spatial variations of Pb, As, and Cu in surface snow along the transect from the Zhongshan Station to Dome A, East Antarctica.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions,10(3):219~231.
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Author NameAffiliationE-mail
XingXing Jiang Key Laboratory for Coast and Island Development, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China  
ShuGui Hou Key Laboratory for Coast and Island Development, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China shugui@nju.edu.cn 
YuanSheng Li Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136, China  
HongXi Pang Key Laboratory for Coast and Island Development, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China  
Rong Hua Key Laboratory for Coast and Island Development, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China  
Mayewski Paul Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA
School of Earth and Climate Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA 
 
Sneed Sharon Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA  
ChunLei An Key Laboratory for Coast and Island Development, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China
Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200136, China 
 
Handley Michael Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, USA  
Ke Liu Key Laboratory for Coast and Island Development, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China  
WangBin Zhang Key Laboratory for Coast and Island Development, School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China  
基金项目:The authors would like to thank the Chinese 26th Antarctic Expedition. In addition, special thanks are given to Mr. JinHai Yu and Mr. Xiang Zou for their useful comments and suggestions. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41330526).
 
Abstract:The spatial distributions of lead, arsenic, and copper (Pb, As, and Cu, respectively) in surface snow along the transect from the Zhongshan Station to Dome A, East Antarctica, are presented. The mean concentrations of Pb, As, and Cu are 1.04±1.56 pg/g, 0.39±0.08 pg/g, and 11.2±14.4 pg/g, respectively. It is estimated that anthropogenic contributions are dominant for Pb, As, and Cu. Spatially, Pb concentrations show an exponentially decreasing trend from the coast inland, while a moderate decreasing trend is observed for Cu concentrations in the coastal area (below 2,000 m above sea level (a.s.l.)). In the intermediate area (2,000-3,000 m a.s.l.), the concentrations and enrichment factors of all these elements show high variability due to the complicated characteristics of climate and environment. On the inland plateau (above 3,000 m a.s.l.), the high concentrations of As and Pb are induced by high deposition efficiency, the existence of polar stratospheric precipitation, and the different fraction deposition to East Antarctica. The extremely high concentrations with maximum values of 9.59 pg/g and 69.9 pg/g for Pb and Cu, respectively, are suggested to result mainly from local human activities at the station. Our results suggest that source, transport pathway, and deposition pattern, rather than distance from the coast or altitude, lead to the spatial distributions of Pb, As, and Cu; and it is further confirmed by spatial variations of the three metals deposited over the whole continent of Antarctica.
keywords:Antarctica  surface snow  trace metals  spatial variations  source and transportation
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